A new literature is now under way, one linking cognitive abnormalities directly to indices of structural, functional, metabolic, and other neurobiologic markers of cerebral integrity, independent of their association with clinical epilepsy characteristics. These trends are reviewed in this article. The focus is on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as a model with which to address the core points because this form of localization-related epilepsy has been very carefully studied from both a cognitive and imaging standpoint. Some pertinent historical issues are touched on first, followed by more detailed reviews of the cognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities that have been found in TLE, followed by an overview of studies examining direct structure-function relationships in TLE and other epilepsies. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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