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Journal article

Emission and transport of bromocarbons: From the West Pacific ocean into the stratosphere

Tegtmeier S, Krüger K, Quack B, Atlas E, Pisso I, Stohl A, Yang X ...see all

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, issue 22 (2012) pp. 10633-10648

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Abstract

Oceanic emissions of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are expected to contribute significantly to the stratospheric halogen loading and therefore to ozone depletion. The amt. of VSLS transported into the stratosphere is estd. based on in-situ observations around the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and on modeling studies which mostly use prescribed global emission scenarios to reproduce obsd. atm. concns. In addn. to upper-air VSLS measurements, direct observations of oceanic VSLS emissions are available along ship cruise tracks. Here we use such in-situ observations of VSLS emissions from the West Pacific and tropical Atlantic together with an atm. Lagrangian transport model to est. the direct contribution of bromoform (CHBr3), and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) to the stratospheric bromine loading as well as their ozone depletion potential. Our emission-based ests. of VSLS profiles are compared to upper-air observations and thus link obsd. oceanic emissions and in situ TTL measurements. This comparison dets. how VSLS emissions and transport in the cruise track regions contribute to global upper-air VSLS ests. The West Pacific emission-based profiles and the global upper-air observations of CHBr3 show a relatively good agreement indicating that emissions from the West Pacific provide an av. contribution to the global CHBr3 budget. The tropical Atlantic, although also being a CHBr3 source region, is of less importance for global upper-air CHBr3 ests. as revealed by the small emission-based abundances in the TTL. Western Pacific CH2Br2 emission-based ests. are considerably smaller than upper-air observations as a result of the relatively low sea-to-air flux found in the West Pacific. Together, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 emissions from the West Pacific are projected to contribute to the stratospheric bromine budget with 0.4 pptv Br on av. and 2.3 pptv Br for cases of max. emissions through product and source gas injection. These relatively low ests. reveal that the tropical West Pacific, although characterized by strong convective transport, might overall contribute less VSLS to the stratospheric bromine budget than other regions as a result of only low CH2Br2 and moderate CHBr3 oceanic emissions. [on SciFinder(R)]

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