The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp-90) inhibitor, geldanamycin, and the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, both inhibited tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1)- but not TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Kym-1 cells, suggesting that TNF-R1-induced cell death is dependent on NF-kappaB activation in this model. Triggering of TNF-R1 by agonistic antibodies led to cell-type specific induction of endogenous TNF and apoptosis, the latter of which was abrogated by neutralizing TNF specific antibodies. TNF-R1-stimulated cells expressed TNF mainly in a cell-associated form, suggesting that the endogenously produced TNF act in its membrane-bound form. Geldanamycin failed to inhibit apoptosis induction by a combination of agonistic TNF-R1- and TNF-R2-specific antibodies, indicating that both TNF receptors co-operate in TNF-R1-triggered apoptosis in Kym-1 cells. Thus, TNF-R1 stimulation can elicit a strong and rapid apoptotic response via induction of membrane TNF and subsequent cooperation of TNF-R1 and TNF-R2. Moreover, we give evidence that this mechanism circumvents the need of the prolonged presence of exogenous soluble TNF for TNF-R1-mediated apoptosis induction.
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