Cells respond to their environment by sensing signals and translating them into changes in gene expression. In recent years, synthetic networks have been designed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems to create new functionalities and for specific applications. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with engineering signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we address advantages and disadvantages of engineering signaling pathways in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, highlighting recent examples, and discuss how progress in synthetic biology might impact biotechnology and biomedicine.
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