Although GABA remains the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, there are numerous recent examples of excitatory actions of GABA. These actions can be classified in two broad categories: phasic excitatory effects, as follow single activation of GABAergic afferents, and sustained excitatory effects, as follow prolonged activation of GABAAreceptors. Evidence reviewed here indicates that, contrary to common belief, these effects are not restricted to embryonic or neonatal preparations. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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