This study was based on Reeve’s (2013) four-aspect conceptualization regarding student engagement to promote active learning using a flipped classroom. The flipped classroom is defined as using technology to provide lectures outside of the classroom, while assignments with concepts are provided inside the classroom through learning activities (Clark, 2013). Behavioral engagement is defined as teachers’ direction of students toward activities that require them to apply initiative (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Emotional engagement is promoted by intentionally selecting materials that stimulate students’ interaction with and feedback to the material (Taylor & Statler, 2013). Cognitive engagement is defined as the teacher’s skill in questioning and the students’ elaboration of an idea as an answer (Smart & Marshall, 2012). Agentic engagement is student self-learning, with a contribution from the lecturer to provide instructional support (Reeve & Tseng, 2011). A descriptive quantitative methodology was used in which 24 undergraduate TESOL students took the course QMT 212 Instructional Design. More information can be found in the full paper.
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