Full and surface tibial cementation in total knee arthroplasty: A biomechanical investigation of stress distribution and remodeling in the tibia

  • Cawley D
  • Kelly N
  • Simpkin A
 et al. 
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Abstract

Background: Aseptic tibial component loosening remains a major cause of total knee arthroplasty failure. The cementation technique used to achieve fixation may play a major role in loosening. Despite this, the optimum technique remains unanswered. This study aims to investigate stress and strain distributions in the proximal tibia for full cementation and surface cementation of the Genesis II tibial component. Methods: Principal cortical bone strains were measured experimentally in intact, surface cemented and fully cemented synthetic tibiae using strain gauges. Both axial and 15° flexion loading were considered. Finite element models were used to assess both cortical and cancellous bone stresses and strains. Using a bone remodeling algorithm potential sites of bone formation and resorption were identified post-implantation. Findings: Principal cortical bone strain results demonstrate strong correlations between the experimental and finite element analyses (R2≥ 0.81, RMSE(%) ≤ 17.5%). Higher cortical strains are measured for surface cementation, as full cementation creates a stiffer proximal tibial structure. Simulations reveal that both cementation techniques result in lower cancellous stresses under the baseplate compared to the intact tibia, with greater reductions being computed for full cementation. The surface cementation model displays the closest cancellous stress distribution to the intact model. In addition, bone remodeling simulations predict more extensive bone resorption under the baseplate for full cementation (43%) than for surface cementation (29%). Interpretation: Full cementation results in greater stress reduction under the tibial baseplate than surface cementation, suggesting that surface cementation will result in less proximal bone resorption, thus reducing the possibility of aseptic loosening. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Bone remodeling
  • Cementation
  • Experimental testing
  • Finite element
  • Strain gauge
  • Stress shielding
  • Tibia
  • Total knee arthroplasty

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