In a study of the effects of within-group variation and between-group variation in leader behavior descriptions, attitudinal and performance data were obtained from in-group members and out-group members of 48 four-man groups in a military setting. In accordance with the analytical approach employed by Ka- terberg and Horn, hierarchical regression analysis was conducted for the atti- tudinal and performance criteria by examining the incremental regression effects of within-group leadership variation following the inclusion of group means (averaged subordinate descriptions of leader behavior) in the initial step of the regression analysis. Results suggested that additional understanding of the af- fective outcomes of both in-group and out-group members may possibly be gained by a dyadic view of leadership. However, the results for the performance criteria were not encouraging. Although the results for the affective measures successfully replicated previous findings, the general failure of the performance measures suggests that serious problems may exist for the dyadic approach as commonly operationalized.
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