Several Fusarium species occurring worldwide on ce- reals as causal agents of head blight (scab) of small grain cereals and ear rot of maize, are capable of accu- mulating, in infected kernels, several mycotoxins some of which of notable impact to human and animal health. The main groups of Fusarium toxins commonly recog- nized in grains are: trichothecenes, including T-2 toxin (T2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), deoxynivalenol (DON), fusarenone X (FUS), and nivalenol (NIV); zearalenones, essentially zearalenone (ZEN); and fumonisins, in par- ticular fumonisin B1 (FB1). In addition, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA), and fusaproliferin (FUP) were also found in Fusarium infected cereal ears, impor- tant as problems due to them are coming to light. The most frequently encountered mycotoxins in ear blight of wheat and other small grain cereals in Europe, proved to be DON and ZEN, produced by F. graminearum and F. culmorum, occurring from southern (warm) to north- ern (cold) European areas, respectively. In association with DON, NIV and FUS were found formed, in all climes by F. graminearum, F. crookwellense, F. culmo- rum and, in Nordic areas, also by F. poae. Moreover, in central to northeastern European countries, MON pro- duced by F. avenaceum, and T-2 and DAS produced by F. sporotrichioides and F. poae, were found respectively. In maize red ear rot affected by F. graminearum ZEN, DON, NIV and FUS were found. In addition, the pres- ence of F. avenaceum and F. subglutinans usually led to the accumulation of MON. Moreover, NIV and FUS were found associated with F. crookwellense, and DAS and T-2 with F. poae and F. sporotrichioides. In maize pink and random kernel rot caused by F. moniliforme, there is increasing evidence of the occurrence of FB1, es- pecially in southern European areas where the same fusariosis was reinforced by the wide occurrence of F. proliferatum capable of producing FB1, MON, BEA and FUP.
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