We studied the susceptibility of three genetically different strains of the cyclical parthenogen Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea) in producing male neonates following exposure to juvenile hormone analogs. In experiment 1, NIES, Clone A, and Belgium A strains were exposed to the insect growth regulators (IGRs) fenoxycarb or epofenonane in a 21-day reproduction experiment. Fenoxycarb exposure decreased the total number of neonates and increased production of male neonates in a concentration-dependent manner in the NIES strain. The decrease in the total number of neonates was so great in Clone A following fenoxycarb exposure that male neonates were not observed, even at the highest concentration, where the total number of neonates was only 2% of the control. In the Belgium A strain, male neonates were observed at a rate of about 20% following exposure to the highest fenoxycarb concentration, but the total number observed was small. Epofenonane did not decrease reproduction in the NIES and Belgium A strains as dramatically as did fenoxycarb, but the neonatal sex ratio changed in a concentration-dependent manner. Although the ratio of males was as low as about 10%, induction of male neonates was also observed in Clone A following epofenonane exposure. In experiment 2, gravid females were exposed to high concentrations (5 or 10 μg/l) of fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen for 12 h. These treatments induced the production of male neonates in all strains, with a small decrease in the total number of neonates. Although induction of male neonates by juvenile hormones and their analogs was universal among genetically different strains, care is needed in interpreting the results of the 21-day reproduction tests, because decreased numbers of neonates at higher concentrations could obscure the presence of male neonates. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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