The successful performance of endodontic surgical procedures is predicated on many factors. However, the ability of achieve sustained tissue haemostasis in the surgical site is crucial to the performance of these procedures. This achievement improves vision in the surgical site, minimizes surgical time, enhances the surgical procedures (root-end resection, preparation and filling), and reduces surgical blood loss, postsurgical haemorrhage and postsurgical swelling. A multitude of materials have used in dentistry and medicine to achieve both generalized and localized haemostasis, many without full assessment of their biological implications. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough and critical review of these materials from the perspective of surgical endodontics, highlighting their development, application and potential role in achieving proper haemostasis.
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