Handbook of identity theory and research (2011) p. 998 Published by Springer New York
This chapter starts by presenting quantitative and qualitative findings to illustrate how adolescents and emerging adults increasingly have exposure to different cultures and a global world. One consequence of adolescents’ and emerging adults’ exposure to diverse cultures is that cultural identity development becomes a more complex process that may follow a variety of pathways. Recent theoretical and empirical work is used to describe plural pathways. Next, the argument is made that with the opening up of plural developmental pathways for cultural identity formation come both risks and opportunities. With regard to risks, the present focus is on cultural identity confusion and mental health, and the emergence of cultural gaps within families between adolescents and their parents or elders. In regard to opportunities, the focus is on youth civic involvement.
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