Klinefelter syndrome was first described in 1942 as an endocrine disorder characterized by gynecomastia, hypogonadism, small testes, and elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone. An extra X chromosome (i.e., 47,XXY) was subsequently demonstrated in these patients and an increased incidence of leukemia and lymphoma has been described. We report a retrospective study of a series of unselected patients with Klinefelter syndrome diagnosed by cytogenetic studies and the occurrence of hematologic malignancies. The literature is also reviewed. © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
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