A Grade 4 titanium was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP)-Conform and drawing to produce an ultrafine grain (UFG) size of ~180Â nm. Some samples were tested in this condition (UFG-1) and others were annealed for 1Â h at 623Â K (UFG-2). The grain boundaries are in a non-equilibrium condition after processing, but the annealing equilibrates the boundaries without any increase in grain size. This leads to significant differences in the mechanical behavior of UFG-1 and UFG-2 when they are tested at 293 and 623Â K. © 2013 Materials Research Society .
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