Inside the Grafters' game: An ethnographic examination of football's underground economy

  • Sugden J
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As the official football (soccer) economy has rapidly and globally grown
to become one of sports' richest commercial engines, so too has its
unofficial, or black, economy expanded, This article provides an insider
account of some of the key features of football's black market, with a
particular emphasis on ticket touting (scalping), fakery, forgery, and
the murky independent travel business. In doing so, it provides a window
into the deviant occupational subculture, lives, and lifestyles of the
``grafters{''}-those characters who inhabit and make their living in
this underground world. It concludes by locating the ``grafters'
game{''} in the wider context of the post-1980s urban-industrial
landscape of Britain and theorizes the subculture in terms of classical
and contemporary theories of deviance.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Black market
  • Hooligans
  • Scalpers
  • Sport tourism
  • Touts

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  • John Sugden

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