Both behaviour and its neural control can be studied at two levels. At the proximate level, we aim to identify the neural circuits that control behaviour and to understand how information is represented and processed in these circuits. Ultimately, however, we are faced with questions of why particular neural solutions have arisen, and what factors govern the ways in which neural circuits are modified during the evolution of new behaviours. Only by integrating these levels of analysis can we fully understand the neural control of behaviour. Recent studies of electrosensory systems show how this synthesis can benefit from the use of tractable systems and comparative studies.
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