Although computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are becoming more prevalent in the classroom, empirical research has demonstrated that some students have difficulty learning with these environments. The motivation construct of computer-self efficacy plays an integral role in learning with CBLEs. This literature review synthesizes research that has empirically examined factors related to computer self-efficacy and the relationship between computer self-efficacy, learning outcomes, and learning processes with CBLEs. Results indicate that behavioral and psychological factors are positively related to computer self-efficacy. Students who receive behavioral modeling report significantly higher computer self-efficacy than do students who receive the more traditional instruction-based method when learning with CBLEs. Computer self-efficacy is related both to learning outcomes and to learning processes with CBLEs. This review also offers theoretical and methodological issues for future research in the area of computer self-efficacy.
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