Long-lasting T cell responses to biological warfare vaccines in human vaccinees.

  • Allen J
  • Skowera A
  • Rubin G
 et al. 
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Medical countermeasures against biological warfare include the use of vaccines for anthrax and plague, which require repeated dosing and adjuvant to achieve adequate protection from threats such as inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. Despite the widespread use of these measures in preparation for recent military deployments, little is known about the cell-mediated immune response that is induced by these vaccines, in comparison with conventional vaccines, such as pertussis or tetanus-diphtheria vaccines.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Anthrax
  • Anthrax Vaccines
  • Anthrax Vaccines: immunology
  • Anthrax: immunology
  • Biological Warfare
  • Cellular
  • Cytokines
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Plague
  • Plague Vaccine
  • Plague Vaccine: immunology
  • Plague: immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • T-Lymphocytes: immunology
  • Th1 Cells
  • Th2 Cells

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  • Jennifer S Allen

  • Ania Skowera

  • G James Rubin

  • Simon Wessely

  • Mark Peakman

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