Machine or friend : Understanding users' preferences for and expectations of a humanoid robot companion

  • Carpenter J
  • Eliot M
  • Schultheis D
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As humanoid robots become increasingly lifelike, the boundaries are blurring between their roles as functional products and socially aware companions. Humanoid robots, or androids, have been developed and marketed along three general lines: entertainment robots (such as toys), service robots (task-oriented, such as security guards or receptionists) and companion robots (used in prolonged social interactions, such as teachers or home attendants). Little is known, however, about users’ expectations and preferences for highly interactive humanoid companions. What design characteristics would encourage or reduce human attachment to a humanoid robot? How do users differentiate service humanoid robots from other androids designed for companionship? Do humanoid products present unique issues for person-product attachment? This paper presents the results of a pilot research project investigating how potential robot users differentiate between “companion” and “service” robot preferences and expectations.

Author-supplied keywords

  • android
  • appearance
  • companion robot
  • design
  • emotion
  • function
  • human-robot interaction
  • robot
  • service robot

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  • PUI: 365468547
  • SCOPUS: 2-s2.0-85011390969
  • SGR: 85011390969
  • ISBN: 9197507954


  • Julie Carpenter

  • Matt Eliot

  • Daniel Schultheis

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