Kernicterus is still occurring but should be largely preventable if health care personnel follow the recommendations listed in this guideline. These recommendations emphasize the importance of universal, systematic assessment of the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia, lactation support, close follow-up, and prompt intervention when necessary. A systems-based approach to prevent severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia should be implemented at all birthing facilities and coordinated with continuing ambulatory care. Translational research is needed to better understand the mechanisms of bilirubin neurotoxicity and potential therapeutic interventions.
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