Massively parallel fabrication of repetitive nanostructures: Nanolithography for nanoarrays

  • Luttge R
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Abstract

This topical review provides an overview of nanolithographic techniques
for nanoarrays. Using patterning techniques such as lithography,
normally we aim for a higher order architecture similarly to functional
systems in nature. Inspired by the wealth of complexity in nature,
these architectures are translated into technical devices, for example,
found in integrated circuitry or other systems in which structural
elements work as discrete building blocks in microdevices. Ordered
artificial nanostructures (arrays of pillars, holes and wires) have
shown particular properties and bring about the opportunity to modify
and tune the device operation. Moreover, these nanostructures deliver
new applications, for example, the nanoscale control of spin direction
within a nanomagnet. Subsequently, we can look for applications where
this unique property of the smallest manufactured element is repetitively
used such as, for example with respect to spin, in nanopatterned
magnetic media for data storage. These nanostructures are generally
called nanoarrays. Most of these applications require massively parallel
produced nanopatterns which can be directly realized by laser interference
(areas up to 4 cm(2) are easily achieved with a Lloyd's mirror set-up).
In this topical review we will further highlight the application
of laser interference as a tool for nanofabrication, its limitations
and ultimate advantages towards a variety of devices including nanostructuring
for photonic crystal devices, high resolution patterned media and
surface modifications of medical implants. The unique properties
of nanostructured surfaces have also found applications in biomedical
nanoarrays used either for diagnostic or functional assays including
catalytic reactions on chip. Bio-inspired templated nanoarrays will
be presented in perspective to other massively parallel nanolithography
techniques currently discussed in the scientific literature.

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