This article presents an overview of two studies that examined the relationship between metacognition and mathematical problem solving in 165 children with average intelligence in Grade 3 in order to help teachers and therapists gain a better understanding of contributors to successful mathematical performance. Principal components analysis on metacognition revealed that three metacognitive components (global metacognition, off-line metacognition, and attribution to effort) explained 66% to 67% of the common variance. The findings from these studies support the use of the assessment of off-line metacognition (essentially prediction and evaluation) to differentiate between average and above-average mathematical problem solvers and between students with a severe or moderate specific mathematics learning disability.
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