Mineralisers, Modifiers and Activators in the Clinkering Process

  • Moir G
  • Glasser F
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The minor components normally constitute less thean 4% of the chemical composition of Portland cement clinker, but can have a marked influence on clinkering reactions and cement properties. The sources of minor components in raw materials and fuels are discussed and recent published work is reviewed with reference to the position of the elements in the periodic table. Some typical clinker microstructures are illustrated. which have been stronulv influenced bv the presence of minor components. Lastly, the environmental impaci of the componekts are considered and the future outlook assessed.

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  • G. K. Moir

  • F. P. Glasser

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