Just as the 1996 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver ushered in the era of effective combination antiretroviral therapy and the 2000 meeting in Durban focused on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the developing world, the 2006 conference (held August 13-18 in Toronto) may be remembered as the one that brought HIV prevention to the fore. Political considerations aside, it has become abundantly clear that efforts to promote behavioral change--the so-called "ABC" approach, relying on abstinence, marital fidelity ("be faithful"), and condoms--has failed to stem the tide of new HIV infections. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), some four million people worldwide were newly infected in 2005. Even as antiretroviral therapy begins to trickle down to people in resource-limited countries, public health experts estimate that about four people become infected with HIV for each person who starts treatment.
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