A new macular dystrophy with anomalous vascular development, pigment spots, cystic spaces, and neovascularization

  • Mahajan V
  • Russell S
  • Stone E
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To clinically phenotype an inherited macular dystrophy with peculiar intraretinal pigment spots, cysts, and hemorrhage in a 24-year-old female proband and her family. METHODS: Extended family members of the proband underwent dilated fundus examination, optical coherence tomography, and, in selected cases, fluorescein angiography and electroretinography. RESULTS: Seventeen family members, representing 3 generations and ranging in age from 5 to 64 years, were clinically examined. Visual acuities ranged from 20/20 to 20/200. Amblyopia and strabismus were frequently present in affected individuals. Consistent with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, 7 family members had multiple central macular cystic spaces and flat, round, densely pigmented spots within the retina. There were right-angle vessels and telangiectasis in the central macula. Two subjects showed evidence of active macular neovascularization with leakage on fluorescein angiography at ages 7 and 24 years, which was responsive to either focal laser or a single injection of bevacizumab. In those cases examined, multifocal electroretinography showed a diminished foveal response. CONCLUSIONS: This spotted cystic neovascular macular dystrophy appears to represent a new autosomal dominant retinal condition. Because these patients are at risk for choroidal neovascularization, identification of the responsible gene may provide insight into the mechanisms of pathological neovascularization.

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Authors

  • Vinit B. Mahajan

  • Stephen R. Russell

  • Edwin M. Stone

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