Objective: Malnutrition is associated with mortality and impaired quality of life (QoL) in systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether nutritional counseling is beneficial to patients with AL. Methods: In this intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02055534), 144 treatment-naïve outpatients with AL were randomized to usual care (UC; n = 72) and nutritional counseling (NC; n = 72). Results: In the randomized population, although patients in the NC group maintained a stable body weight (weight loss [WL] = 0.6 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.0 to 2.1; P = 0.214), those in the UC group demonstrated a significant decrease (WL = 2.1 kg; 95% CI, 0.2-4.1; P = 0.003). However, the difference in weight between groups was not significant (mean WL difference = 1.6 kg; 95% CI, -0.7 to 3.9; P = 0.179). Patients in the NC group demonstrated more satisfactory energy intake (≥75% of estimated requirements, odds ratio, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.04-4.57; P = 0.048) and a significant increase in the mental component summary of QoL (Short form-36) at 12 mo (mean difference, 8.1; 95% CI, 2.3-13.9; P = 0.007), which was restored to a mean score of 53 (95% CI, 50-53), over the healthy population norms. NC was also associated with better survival (crude hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.94; P = 0.028). Conclusions: In outpatients with AL, NC was helpful in preserving body weight, effective in improving mental QoL, and associated with better survival.
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