Along with viral vectors, non-viral strategies have been developed in order to efficiently deliver nucleic acids to ocular cells. During the last decade, we have observed that the outcome of these non-viral delivery systems depends on the genetic material used, the targeted tissue or cells, the expected effect duration, and the routes of administration. Assessment of efficiency has been evaluated in normal eyes or in animal models of ocular diseases. The chemical and physical methods that have been adapted for the delivery of nucleic acids to ocular tissues are highlighted and discussed in this review. Also, the results obtained with different non-viral strategies from their initial conception to their present development are summarized. At the present, selective targeting of ocular tissues and cells can be achieved using the most yielding route of administration to the eye in combination with an appropriate drug delivery technique.
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