Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • Cheng A
  • Fantus I
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Abstract

DIABETES MELLITUS is A CHRONIC DISEASE that is growing in prevalence worldwide. Pharmacologic therapy is often necessary to achieve optimal glycemic control in the management of diabetes. Orally administered antihyperglycemic agents (OHAs) can be used either alone or in combination with other OHAs or insulin. The number of available OHAs has increased significantly in the last decade, which translates into more therapeutic options and complex decision-making for physicians. This review article is designed to help with these decisions. We review the mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects of the different classes of OHAs (α-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, insulin secretagogues, insulin sensitizers and intestinal lipase inhibitor) and discuss the current recommendations for their use.

Author-supplied keywords

  • 2,4 thiazolidinedione derivative
  • abdominal discomfort
  • acarbose
  • actos
  • alpha glucosidase inhibitor
  • amaryl
  • anemia
  • anorexia
  • avandamet
  • avandia
  • biguanide derivative
  • bloating
  • buformin
  • chlorpropamide
  • chronic disease
  • clinical trial
  • congestive heart failure
  • cross reaction
  • defecation disorder
  • diabeta
  • diamicron
  • diamicron mr
  • diarrhea
  • drug contraindication
  • drug cost
  • drug dose regimen
  • drug efficacy
  • drug hypersensitivity
  • drug mechanism
  • drug metabolism
  • edema
  • esterase inhibitor
  • fecal urgency
  • feces incontinence
  • flatulence
  • flushing
  • gastrointestinal symptom
  • gemfibrozil
  • glibenclamide
  • gliclazide
  • glimepiride
  • gluconorm
  • glucose
  • glucose absorption
  • glucose blood level
  • human
  • hypoglycemia
  • hyponatremia
  • insulin
  • insulin secretagogue
  • insulin sensitizing agent
  • intestinal lipase inhibitor
  • lactic acidosis
  • liver failure
  • lung edema
  • medical decision making
  • metformin
  • metformin plus rosiglitazone
  • miglitol
  • monotherapy
  • multivitamin
  • nateglinide
  • non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • oily spotting
  • oral antidiabetic agent
  • orlistat
  • pathogenesis
  • peripheral edema
  • phenformin
  • pioglitazone
  • prevalence
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  • review
  • rosiglitazone
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  • starlix
  • steatorrhea
  • sulfonamide
  • sulfonylurea derivative
  • tetrahydrolipstatin
  • tolbutamide
  • unclassified drug
  • weight gain
  • weight reduction

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Authors

  • A Y Y Cheng

  • I G Fantus

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