Pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass adaptations for long-term survival of baboons undergoing pulmonary artery replacement.

  • Whittaker C
  • Grist G
  • Bert A
 et al. 
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Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) protocols of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis) are limited to obtaining experimental data without concern for long-term survival. In the evaluation of pulmonary artery tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs), pediatric CPB methods are adapted to accommodate the animals' unique physiology enabling survival up to 6 months until elective sacrifice. Aortic access was by a 14F arterial cannula and atrial access by a single 24F venous cannula.The CPB circuit includes a 3.3 L/min flow rated oxygenator, 1/4" x %" arterial-venous loop, 3/8" raceway, and bubble trap. The prime contains 700 mL Plasma-Lyte, 700 units heparin, 5 mL of 50% dextrose, and 20 mg amiodarone. Heparinization (200 u/kg) targets an activated clotting time of 350 seconds. Normothermic CPB was initiated at a 2.5 L/m2/min cardiac index with a mean arterial pressure of 55-80 mmHg. Weaning was monitored with transesophageal echocardiogram. Post-CPB circuit blood was re-infused. Chest tubes were removed with cessation of bleeding. Extubation was performed upon spontaneous breathing. The animals were conscious and upright 3 hours post-CPB. Bioprosthetic valves or TEHVs were implanted as pulmonary replacements in 20 baboons: weight = 27.5 +/- 5.6 kg, height = 73 +/- 7 cm, body surface area = 0.77 m2 +/- 0.08, mean blood flow = 1.973 +/- .254 L/min, core temperature = 37.1 +/- .1 degree C, and CPB time = 60 +/- 40 minutes. No acidosis accompanied CPB. Sixteen animals survived, four expired. Three died of right ventricular failure and one of an anaphylactoid reaction. Surviving animals had normally functioning replacement valves and ventricles. Baboon CPB requires modifications to include high systemic blood pressure for adequate perfusion into small coronary arteries, careful CPB weaning to prevent ventricular distention, and drug and fluid interventions to abate variable venous return related to a muscularized spleno-splanchnic venous capacity.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Animals
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass: methods
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass: mortality
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
  • Male
  • Models, Animal
  • Papio
  • Pulmonary Artery
  • Pulmonary Artery: surgery
  • Pulmonary Valve
  • Pulmonary Valve: surgery
  • Survival Rate
  • Tissue Engineering

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  • SGR: 78649415680
  • ISSN: 0022-1058
  • PMID: 21114226
  • SCOPUS: 2-s2.0-78649415680
  • ISBN: 0022-1058
  • PUI: 360037474


  • Carrie Whittaker

  • Gary Grist

  • Arthur Bert

  • Kathleen Brasky

  • Stacy Neighbors

  • Christopher McFall

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