Post-collisional potassic granitoids from the southern and northwestern parts of the Late Neoproterozoic East African Orogen: A review

  • Küster D
  • Harms U
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Potassic metaluminous granitoids with enrichments of HFS elements constitute part of widespread post-collisional magmatism related to the Late Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny in northeastern Africa (Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia) and Madagascar. The plutons were emplaced between 580 and 470 Ma and comprise both subsolvus and hypersolvus biotite-granite, biotite-hornblende-granite, quartz-monzonite and quartz-syenite. Pyroxene-bearing granitoids are subordinate. Basic dikes and enclaves of monzodioritic composition are locally associated with the granitoid plutons. Granitoids emplaced in pre-Neoproterozoic crust have Sr(i)-ratios between 0.7060 and 0.7236 and ε(Nd)(t) values between -15.8 and -5.6 while those emplaced in, or close to the contact with, juvenile Neoproterozoic crust have lower Sr(i)-ratios (0.7036-0.7075) and positive ε(Nd)(t) values (4.6). However, it is unlikely that the potassic granitoids represent products of crustal melting alone. The association with basic magmas derived from subduction-modified enriched mantle sources strongly suggests that the granitoids represent hybrid magmas produced by interaction and mixing of mantle and crust derived melts in the lower crust. The most intense period of this potassic granitoid magmatism occurred between 585 and 540 Ma, largely coeval with HT granulite facies metamorphism in Madagascar and with amphibolite facies retrogression in southeastern Africa (Somalia, Sudan). Granitoid magmatism and high-grade metamorphism are probably both related to post-collisional lithospheric thinning, magmatic underplating and crustal relaxation. However, the emplacement of potassic granites continued until about 470 Ma and implies several magmatic pulses associated with different phases of crustal uplift and cooling. The potassic metaluminous granites are temporally and spatially associated with post-collisional high-K calc-alkaline granites with which they share many petrographical, geochemical and isotopical similarities, except the incompatible element enrichments. The resemblance indicates a strongly related petrogenesis of both granite associations.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Northeast Africa
  • Pan-African
  • Post-collision
  • Potassic granites

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  • Dirk Küster

  • Ulrich Harms

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