BACKGROUND: Dietary fibers are associated with enhanced satiety. However, the mechanism of different dietary fibers contributing to satiety-related gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release, especially in an obese population, is still poorly understood. Polydextrose (PDX), a water-soluble glucose polymer, has demonstrated its ability to reduce energy intake at a subsequent meal, but its mechanism of action requires further research. Also, there is limited evidence on its capacity to regulate subjective feelings of appetite. This study examines the effects of PDX on postprandial secretion of satiety-related GI peptides, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), lactic acid, and subjective appetite ratings in obese participants.
METHODS: 18 non-diabetic, obese participants (42.0 y, 33.6 kg/m2) consumed a high-fat meal (4293 kJ, 36% from fat) with or without PDX (15 g) in an acute, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover trial. Postprandial plasma concentrations of satiety-related peptides, namely ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY), as well as SCFAs and lactic acid were assessed. GI peptide, SCFA and lactate concentrations were then modeled using a linear mixed-effects model.The subjective feelings of hunger, satisfaction, and desire to eat were evaluated using visual analogue scales (VAS), which were analyzed as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) during the satiation and satiety periods.
RESULTS: We found that PDX supplementation increased plasma GLP-1 levels more than the placebo treatment (P = 0.02). In the whole group, GLP-1 concentrations found in participants older than 40 years old were significantly lower (P = 0.01) as compared to those aged 40 years or less. There were no statistically significant differences in postprandial ghrelin, CCK, or PYY responses. The lactic acid concentrations were significantly (P = 0.01) decreased in the PDX group, while no significant changes in SCFAs were found. PDX reduced iAUC for hunger by 40% (P = 0.03) and marginally increased satisfaction by 22.5% (P = 0.08) during the post-meal satiety period.
CONCLUSION: Polydextrose increased the postprandial secretion of the satiety hormone GLP-1 and reduced hunger after a high-fat meal. PDX also reduced the elevated postprandial lactic acid levels in plasma. Therefore, PDX may offer an additional means to regulate inter-meal satiety and improve postprandial metabolism in obese participants.
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