This review focuses on "clinical proteomics" which represents an emerging discipline in biomedical research. "Clinical proteomics" relies on the analysis of the proteome, i.e. the entire set of peptides and proteins present in a biological sample, to provide relevant data for diagnosis, prognosis or therapeutic strategies of human pathologies. This new type of approach has tremendous potential for the diagnosis of complex pathologies or for the early detection of cancers. This article reports the conclusions of a workgroup of the French Society for Clinical Biology (SFBC) 2004-2006 which evaluated the status, the impact and the future development of proteomics in the clinical field. It provides therefore a broad view going from the methods already present in the clinical laboratories (multiplex technologies...), to the tools for clinical and basis research including bioinformatics.
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