Abstract: Three developmental contexts-school, neighborhood, and family-influence school outcomes. The focus of the current investigation was on the promotive role of 4 family factors-family satisfaction, family support, family integration, and home academic culture-on 3 school outcomes. These outcomes included student self-reported sense of school coherence, avoidance of problem behavior, and academic performance. Utilizing a hierarchical linear modeling strategy and a national probability sample, the family protective factors of interest displayed a significant but differential pattern of impact on the 3 school outcomes studied. Findings related to neighborhood and school factors, as well as race/ethnicity, are also reported and discussed. The implications of these findings with respect to practice and policy are addressed.
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