Previous research has shown that reach endpoints vary with the starting position of the reaching hand and the location of the reach target in space. We examined the effect of movement direction of a proprioceptive target-hand, immediately preceding a reach, on reach endpoints to that target. Participants reached to visual, proprioceptive (left target-hand), or visual-proprioceptive targets (left target-hand illuminated for one second prior to reach onset) with their right hand. Six sites served as starting and final target locations (35 target movement directions in total). Reach endpoints do not vary with the movement direction of the proprioceptive target, but instead appear to be anchored to some other reference (e.g. body). We also compared reach endpoints across the single and dual modality conditions. Overall, the pattern of reaches for visual-proprioceptive targets resembled those for proprioceptive targets, while reach precision resembled those for the visual targets. We did not, however, find evidence for integration of vision and proprioception based on a maximum likelihood estimator in these tasks.
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