Reactive and proactive subtypes of relational and concurrent and longitudinal adjustment

  • Card N
  • Little T
  • Crapanzano A
 et al. 
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Peer aggression in children is a serious issue that school psychologists often encounter on a daily basis. To develop a better understanding of aggression, it is important to look at specific subtypes of aggression and how they are related to adjustment difficulties. Past research has examined the links between reactive and proactive physical aggression and adjustment difficulties, but fewer studies have examined functional subtypes of relational aggression. Furthermore, little research has examined the associations between reactive and proactive relational aggression and adjustment difficulties in middle childhood. This study examined how reactive and proactive subtypes of both physical aggression and relational aggression were associated with adjustment difficulties (internalizing and externalizing problems) at Time 1 (third grade) and Time 2 (fourth grade) in a sample (n = 125) of children. Regression analyses showed that reactive relational aggression was associated with concurrent internalizing problems. Associations between aggression and externalizing difficulties varied by gender. These data suggest the importance of taking into account functional subtypes of both relational aggression and physical aggression when studying adjustment difficulties. The implications of these findings are discussed. (Contains 2 tables and 2 footnotes.)

Author-supplied keywords

  • Aggression
  • Callous-unemotional traits
  • Children
  • Conduct disorder
  • Delinquency
  • Externalizing
  • Girls
  • Group identity
  • Internalizing
  • Moral judgment
  • Oppositional defiant disorder
  • Peer relationships
  • Proactive
  • Proactive aggression
  • Reactive
  • Reactive aggression
  • Relational
  • Relational aggression
  • Self-regulation
  • Social cognition
  • Social groups
  • a time of signifi-
  • adjustment
  • aggression
  • aggressive behavior
  • aspects of concurrent maladjustment
  • associated with various
  • cant change and importance
  • childhood aggression is consistently
  • during which they transition
  • emerging adulthood
  • for most young people
  • from
  • from the late teens
  • in industrialized countries
  • including depression
  • instrumental aggression
  • meta-analysis
  • proactive aggression
  • reactive aggression
  • religiosity
  • research synthesis
  • self-perceptions
  • the years
  • through the twenties are

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  • N. a. Card

  • Todd D. Little

  • Ann Marie Crapanzano

  • Paul J. Frick

  • Andrew M. Terranova

  • P. J. Fite

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