The goal of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a research-based early reading programthat provided integrated reading instruction in kindergar- ten through 2nd grade. The Reading and Integrated Literacy Strategies (RAILS) program provided integrated instruction in word reading, vocabulary develop- ment, and comprehension to students in regular and self-contained special edu- cation classes in 2 schools serving low-income populations. Teachers provided explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, phonemic analysis, word reading, vocabulary development, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension. Classeswere organized so students received 2 periods of reading instruction daily, a longermorning period of instruction and a shorter afternoon review of instruc- tion.The students intheRAILS programhad significantly higher performance on standardized reading and language achievement tests, as well as on individually administered tests of phonemic awareness and reading fluency. The implications for research-based instructional practice that integrates instruction in word reading, vocabulary, and comprehension are discussed.
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