Rediscovery and Mitochondrial Relationships of the Dendrobatid Frog Colostethus humilis Suggest Parallel Colonization of the Venezuelan Andes by Poison Frogs

  • La Marca E
  • Vences M
  • Lötters S
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Colostethus humilis Rivero, ‘1978’ 1980 was rediscovered near the type locality. The species is redescribed, and data on its advertisement call are provided for the first time. Its morphology and colour pattern differ from other Andean dendrobatids. It shows morphological and bio-acoustic similarities to species of Colostethus from the Amazonian lowlands. A phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the mito- chondrial 16S rRNA gene confirmed that C. humilis is related to Amazonian lowland Colostethus, rather than to other Andean poison frogs of the genera Nephelobates and Mannophryne. This indicates that several groups of basal dendrobatids independently have colonised the Venezuelan Andes.

Author-supplied keywords

  • advertisement call
  • anura
  • colostethus humilis
  • dendrobatidae
  • mitochondrial
  • phylogeny
  • redescription

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  • Enrique La Marca

  • Miguel Vences

  • Stefan Lötters

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