In most applications, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) will deploy a large number of distributed sensor nodes in remote or inhospitable places, making batteries their main source of energy; thus, the stored energy is a key resource of a WSN. Sensor nodes should balance their limited resources to increase the lifetime of the network. The knowledge of the available amount of energy becomes an important requirement for the maintenance, implementation of self-management techniques, and viability of the WSN. Therefore, the research of the state-of-charge (SoC), or the remaining capacity estimation, is of key importance. This paper presents an energy-efficient battery-remaining capacity-estimation technique. The experiments were conducted using the MICA2 wireless sensor node platform, which shows that the voltage-only-based estimation presented an available 18% of the battery maximum capacity, although the battery had been fully discharged, and a current-based estimation technique is presented with minimal hardware intervention.
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