Rheumatic manifestations of skin disease

  • J.T. C
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Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasing interest in improving the understanding of pathophysiology, outcome measures, and therapies of rheumatic skin disease. Increasingly, studies are using the skin as a primary endpoint for evaluating therapies. This will review the current state of the art for the most common rheumatic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of medications, including biologics such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon, have been associated with onset of cutaneous lupus. The cutaneous lupus erythematosus area and severity index has been further validated and utilized in a number of studies. Smoking continues to be associated both with presence and refractoriness of cutaneous lupus erythematosus to therapy. There are several tools now available for evaluating the skin disease of dermatomyositis, but there is a need for new effective therapies. Measurement of skin disease in scleroderma continues to be a challenge, and there is a need for more effective therapies. Several studies show efficacy of intravenous iloprost for severe Raynaud's and skin ulcers, and of bosentan for digital ulcers.SUMMARY: The present review covers new outcome measures, treatments,and unusual manifestations of cutaneous lupus, dermatomyositis,scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis. There have been a number of new studies related to validation of disease activity measures, as well as their use in evaluation of new therapies for these conditions.Validated outcome measures are required to perform meaningful studies,and will acilitate organized epidemiologic, quality of life, and therapeutic studies. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health , Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *rheumatic disease/di [Diagnosis]
  • *rheumatic disease/dr [Drug Resistance]
  • *rheumatic disease/ep [Epidemiology]
  • *rheumatic disease/et [Etiology]
  • *rheumatic disease/th [Therapy]
  • *skin disease/di [Diagnosis]
  • *skin disease/dr [Drug Resistance]
  • *skin disease/ep [Epidemiology]
  • *skin disease/et [Etiology]
  • *skin disease/th [Therapy]
  • Raynaud phenomenon/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • antimalarial agent/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • aromatase inhibitor/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • beta interferon/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • beta1a interferon/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • bosentan/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • calcineurin inhibitor/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • calcineurin inhibitor/tp [Topical Drug Administrat
  • capecitabine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • clinical feature
  • clinical trial
  • corticosteroid/cb [Drug Combination]
  • corticosteroid/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • corticosteroid/iv [Intravenous Drug Administration
  • corticosteroid/po [Oral Drug Administration]
  • corticosteroid/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • cyclophosphamide/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • cyclosporin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • dermatomyositis/di [Diagnosis]
  • dermatomyositis/si [Side Effect]
  • disease activity
  • disease severity
  • drug dose comparison
  • drug megadose
  • human
  • hydroxychloroquine/cb [Drug Combination]
  • hydroxychloroquine/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • hydroxyurea/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • iloprost/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • iloprost/do [Drug Dose]
  • iloprost/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • iloprost/iv [Intravenous Drug Administration]
  • imatinib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • imatinib/dv [Drug Development]
  • immunosuppressive agent/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • incidence
  • injection site reaction/si [Side Effect]
  • interferon/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • leflunomide/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • lenalidomide/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • low drug dose
  • mepacrine/cb [Drug Combination]
  • mepacrine/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • methotrexate/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • methotrexate/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • mycophenolic acid 2 morpholinoethyl ester/cb [Drug
  • mycophenolic acid 2 morpholinoethyl ester/dt [Drug
  • nonhuman
  • outcome assessment
  • penicillamine/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • penicillamine/do [Drug Dose]
  • penicillamine/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • priority journal
  • recombinant relaxin/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • recombinant relaxin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • review
  • rheumatoid arthritis/di [Diagnosis]
  • rheumatoid nodule/si [Side Effect]
  • risk factor
  • rituximab/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • scleroderma/di [Diagnosis]
  • scleroderma/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • scleroderma/th [Therapy]
  • sensory neuropathy/si [Side Effect]
  • sertraline/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • skin inflammation
  • skin lupus erythematosus/di [Diagnosis]
  • skin lupus erythematosus/dr [Drug Resistance]
  • skin lupus erythematosus/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • skin lupus erythematosus/ep [Epidemiology]
  • skin lupus erythematosus/et [Etiology]
  • skin lupus erythematosus/si [Side Effect]
  • skin lupus erythematosus/th [Therapy]
  • skin ulcer/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • smoking
  • symptom
  • systemic sclerosis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • thalidomide/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • thalidomide/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • transforming growth factor beta antibody/dt [Drug
  • tumor necrosis factor alpha/ae [Adverse Drug React
  • tumor necrosis factor antibody/ae [Adverse Drug Re
  • unindexed drug XT - dermatomyositis / side effect
  • vasculitis

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Authors

  • Clarke J.T.

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