The use of the Cormack± Jolly± Seber model under a standard sampling scheme of one sample per time period, when the Jolly± Seber assumption that all emigration is permanent does not hold, leads to the confounding of temporary emigration probabilities with capture probabilities. This biases the estimates of capture probability when temporary emigration is a completely random process, and both capture and survival probabilities when there is a temporary trap response in temporary emigration, or it is Markovian. The use of secondary capture samples over a shorter interval within each period, during which the population is assumed to be closed (Pollock’ s robust design), provides a second source of information on capture probabilities. This solves the confound- ing problem, and thus temporary emigration probabilities can be estimated. This process can be accomplished in an ad hoc fashion for completely random temporary emigration and to some extent in the temporary trap response case, but modelling the complete sampling process provides more ¯ exibility and permits direct estimation of variances. For the case of Markovian temporary emigration, a full likelihood is required.
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