Secondary electron imaging at gas pressures in excess of 1 kPa

  • Toth M
  • Uncovsky M
  • Ralph Knowles W
 et al. 
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Environmental SEM (ESEM) enables electron imaging of gas-mediated, direct-write nanolithog. processes, liqs., and hydrated biomaterials. However, ESEM is limited by poor image quality at gas pressures in excess of .apprx.600 Pa. Here the authors achieve high quality secondary electron imaging at 2 kPa of H2O by optimizing boundary conditions that govern beam scatter and the energy distribution of low energy electrons in the gas, dielec. breakdown of the gas, and detector collection efficiency. The presented high pressure imaging method will enable imaging of hydrated materials at close to room temp., and gas-mediated surface modification processes occurring at high pressures. [on SciFinder (R)]

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  • Milos Toth

  • Marek Uncovsky

  • W. Ralph Knowles

  • Francis S. Baker

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