Journal article

Ship emitted NO2 in the Indian Ocean: comparison of model results with satellite data

Franke K, Richter A, Bovensmann H, Eyring V, Joeckel P, Hoor P, Burrows J ...see all

ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, vol. 9, issue 19 (2009) pp. 7289-7301

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The inventory of NOx emission from international shipping has been
evaluated by comparing NO2 tropospheric columns derived from the
satellite instruments SCIAMACHY (January 2003 to February 2008), GOME
(January 1996 to June 2003), and GOME-2 (March 2007 to February 2008) to
NO2 columns calculated with the atmospheric chemistry general
circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 (January 2000 to October 2005). For both
measurements and model consistently the tropospheric excess method was
used to obtain mean NO2 columns over the shipping lane from India to
Indonesia, and over two ship free regions, the Bay of Bengal and the
central Indian Ocean. The long-term data set from SCIAMACHY yields the
first monthly analysis of ship induced NO2 enhancements in the Indian
Ocean. Comparison of data from the three instruments and in addition OMI
reveals differences between the datasets which are discussed with
respect to the diurnal cycle of NO2 and the increase in shipping traffic
over the time period studied.
In general, the model simulates the differences between the regions
affected by ship pollution and ship free regions reasonably well. Minor
discrepancies between model results and satellite data were identified
during biomass burning seasons in March to May over India and the
Indochinese Peninsula and August to October over Indonesia. We conclude
that the NOx ship emission inventory used in this study is a good
approximation of NOx ship emissions in the Indian Ocean for the years
2002 to 2007. It assumes that around 6 Tg(N) yr(-1) are emitted by
international shipping globally, resulting in 90 Gg(N) yr(-1) in the
region of interest when using Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System (AMVER) as spatial proxy. A second model run using lower ship
emissions estimates of 3-4 Tg(N) yr(-1) globally results in poorer
agreement with the satellite data.

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  • K Franke

  • A Richter

  • H Bovensmann

  • V Eyring

  • P Joeckel

  • P Hoor

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