Social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence in India

  • Bowker J
  • Raja R
  • 48


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 50


    Citations of this article.


The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isola-tion, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35 years). Peer nominations of peer relations and socioemotional behaviors were gathered, along with self-reports of reasons for being alone and loneliness. Preliminary evidence of validity for the self-report measure of withdrawal subtypes and isolation was found, and factor analyses indicated that shyness, unso-ciability, and avoidance represent related, but distinct forms of withdrawal that are distinct from isolation. Shyness and avoidance were uniquely associated with loneliness and exclusion, but unsociability was not. The association between avoidance and loneliness was medi-ated by exclusion. Findings suggest that social withdrawal may be best conceptualized as a multifaceted construct during childhood and adolescence, in Western and non-Western societies.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Avoidance
  • Isolation
  • Loneliness
  • Peers
  • Shyness
  • Social withdrawal
  • Unsociability

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Julie C. Bowker

  • Radhi Raja

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free