This paper reviews stochastic system identification methods that have been used to esti-mate the modal parameters of vibrating structures in operational conditions. It is found that many classical input-output methods have an output-only counterpart. For instance, the Complex Mode Indication Function (CMIF) can be applied both to Frequency Re-sponse Functions and output power and cross spectra. The Polyreference Time Domain (PTD) method applied to impulse responses is similar to the Instrumental Variable (IV) method applied to output covariances. The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) is equivalent to stochastic subspace identification.
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