Stress and anxiety-depression levels following first-trimester miscarriage: A comparison between women who conceived naturally and women who conceived with assisted reproduction

  • Cheung C
  • Chan C
  • Ng E
  • 40


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 15


    Citations of this article.


OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychological impact following early miscarriage between women who conceived naturally and women who conceived following assisted reproduction.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

SETTING: Assisted reproduction clinic and general gynaecological unit in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral hospital.

POPULATION: A cohort of 150 women (75 after natural conception; 75 after assisted reproduction).

METHODS: Completed semi-structured interviews using two standard questionnaires [the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the 22-item Revised Impact of Events Scale (IES-R)], at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after a diagnosis of first-trimester miscarriage.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The GHQ-12 and IES-R scores for the two groups of women.

RESULTS: The GHQ-12 and IES-R scores were significantly higher in the assisted reproduction group than the scores in the natural conception group, at 4 weeks and 12 weeks after miscarriage. Further breakdown of the scores revealed significantly higher hyperarousal symptoms at 4 and 12 weeks in the assisted reproduction group, indicating the traumatic effect of miscarriage to these women.

CONCLUSIONS: Following first-trimester miscarriage, subfertile women who conceived after assisted reproduction had higher stress and anxiety-depression levels, and experienced more traumatic impact from the event, than those after natural conception. A timely support and psychological intervention would be beneficial in the management of this group of women.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Anxiety
  • assisted reproduction
  • depression
  • miscarriage
  • subfertility

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • C. S. Cheung

  • C. H. Chan

  • E. H. Ng

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free