Journal article

Stronger ocean circulation and increased melting under Pine Island Glacier ice shelf

Arthern R, Hindmarsh R, Williams C, Bingham R, Ferraccioli F, King E, Larter R, Pritchard H, Smith A, Vaughan D, Bueler E, Brown J, Cornford S, Martin D, Payne A, Ng E, Le Brocq A, Gladstone R, Edwards T, Shannon S, Agosta C, van den Broeke M, Hellmer H, Krinner G, Ligtenberg S, Timmermann R, Vaughan D, Depoorter M, Bamber J, Griggs J, Lenaerts J, Ligtenberg S, van den Broeke M, Moholdt G, Dutrieux P, De Rydt J, Jenkins A, Holland P, Ha H, Lee S, Steig E, Ding Q, Abrahamsen E, Schröder M, Favier L, Durand G, Cornford S, Gudmundsson G, Gagliardini O, Gillet-Chaulet F, Zwinger T, Payne A, Le Brocq A, Flament T, Rémy F, Fretwell P, Pritchard H, Vaughan D, Bamber J, Barrand N, Bell R, Bianchi C, Bingham R, Blankenship D, Casassa G, Catania G, Callens D, Conway H, Cook A, Corr H, Damaske D, Damm V, Ferraccioli F, Forsberg R, Fujita S, Gim Y, Gogineni P, Griggs J, Hindmarsh R, Holmlund P, Holt J, Jacobel R, Jenkins A, Jokat W, Jordan T, King E, Kohler J, Krabill W, Riger-Kusk M, Langley K, Leitchenkov G, Leuschen C, Luyendyk B, Matsuoka K, Mouginot J, Nitsche F, Nogi Y, Nost O, Popov S, Rignot E, Rippin D, Rivera A, Roberts J, Ross N, Siegert M, Smith A, Steinhage D, Studinger M, Sun B, Tinto B, Welch B, Wilson D, Young D, Xiangbin C, Zirizzotti A, Frieler K, Clark P, He F, Buizert C, Reese R, Ligtenberg S, van den Broeke M, Winkelmann R, Levermann A, Fürst J, Durand G, Gillet-Chaulet F, Merino N, Tavard L, Mouginot J, Gourmelen N, Gagliardini O, Geografie D, Brussel V, Utrecht U, Huybrechts P, de Wolde J, Glacier P, Glacier T, Island B, Gudmundsson G, Krug J, Durand G, Favier L, Gagliardini O, Harig C, Simons F, Hellmer H, Kauker F, Timmermann R, Determann J, Rae J, Helm V, Humbert A, Miller H, Hindmarsh R, Holt T, Glasser N, Quincey D, Siegfried M, Huss M, Farinotti D, Joughin, I., Smith, B.E., & Medley B, Joughin I, Smith B, Medley B, Karlsson N, Dahl-Jensen D, Katz R, Worster M, King M, Bingham R, Moore P, Whitehouse P, Bentley M, Milne G, Kyrke-Smith T, Katz R, Fowler A, Levermann A, Bamber J, Drijfhout S, Ganopolski A, Haeberli W, Harris N, Huss M, Krüger K, Lenton T, Lindsay R, Notz D, Wadhams P, Weber S, Ligtenberg S, Helsen M, van den Broeke M, Linkov I, Bridges T, Creutzig F, Decker J, Fox-Lent C, Kröger W, Lambert J, Levermann A, Montreuil B, Nathwani J, Nyer R, Renn O, Scharte B, Scheffler A, Schreurs M, Thiel-Clemen T, Liu Y, Moore J, Cheng X, Gladstone R, Bassis J, Liu H, Wen J, Hui F, Marzeion B, Levermann A, Masson-Delmotte V, Steen-Larsen H, Ortega P, Swingedouw D, Popp T, Vinther B, Oerter H, Sveinbjornsdottir A, Gudlaugsdottir H, Box J, Falourd S, Fettweis X, Gallée H, Garnier E, Gkinis V, Jouzel J, Landais A, Minster B, Paradis N, Orsi A, Risi C, Werner M, White J, McMillan M, Shepherd A, Sundal A, Briggs K, Muir A, Ridout A, Hogg A, Wingham D, Menon A, Levermann A, Schewe J, Mouginot J, Rignot E, Scheuchl B, Winkelmann R, Martin M, Haseloff M, Albrecht T, Bueler E, Khroulev C, Levermann A, Rignot E, Jacobs S, Olbers D, Hellmer H, Paolo F, Fricker H, Padman L, Pattyn F, Schoof C, Perichon L, Hindmarsh R, Bueler E, De Fleurian B, Durand G, Gagliardini O, Gladstone R, Goldberg D, Gudmundsson G, Huybrechts P, Lee V, Nick F, Payne A, Pollard D, Rybak O, Saito F, Vieli A, Perol T, Rice J, Platt J, Suckale J, Pollard D, Deconto R, Pritchard H, Ligtenberg S, Fricker H, Vaughan D, van den Broeke M, Padman L, Rebesco M, Domack E, Zgur F, Lavoie C, Leventer A, Brachfeld S, Willmott V, Halverson G, Truffer M, Scambos T, Smith J, Pettit E, Rignot E, Jacobs S, Mouginot J, Scheuchl B, Morlighem M, Seroussi H, Scheuchl B, Velicogna I, van den Broeke M, Monaghan A, Lenaerts J, Rosier S, Gudmundsson G, Green J, Ross N, Bingham R, Corr H, Ferraccioli F, Jordan T, Le Brocq A, Rippin D, Young D, Blankenship D, Siegert M, Scambos T, Berthier E, Haran T, Shuman C, Cook A, Ligtenberg S, Bohlander J, Schewe J, Levermann A, Schmidtko S, Heywood K, Thompson A, Aoki S, Shepherd A, Ivins E, A G, Barletta V, Bentley M, Bettadpur S, Briggs K, Bromwich D, Forsberg R, Galin N, Horwath M, Jacobs S, Joughin I, King M, Lenaerts J, Li J, Ligtenberg S, Luckman A, Luthcke S, McMillan M, Meister R, Milne G, Mouginot J, Muir A, Nicolas J, Paden J, Payne A, Pritchard H, Rignot E, Rott H, Sørensen L, Scambos T, Scheuchl B, Schrama E, Smith B, Sundal A, van Angelen J, van de Berg W, van den Broeke M, Vaughan D, Velicogna I, Wahr J, Whitehouse P, Wingham D, Yi D, Young D, Zwally H, Sillmann J, Lenton T, Levermann A, Ott K, Hulme M, Benduhn F, Horton J, Sutterley T, Velicogna I, Rignot E, Mouginot J, Flament T, Broeke M, Wessem J, Reijmer C, Tapley B, Bettadpur S, Watkins M, Reigber C, Tison J, de Angelis M, Littot G, Wolff E, Fischer H, Hansson M, Bigler M, Udisti R, Wegner A, Jouzel J, Stenni B, Johnsen S, Masson-Delmotte V, Landais A, Lipenkov V, Loulergue L, Barnola J, Petit J, Delmonte B, Dreyfus G, Dahl-Jensen D, Durand G, Bereiter B, Schilt A, Spahni R, Pol K, Lorrain R, Souchez R, Samyn D, van Wessem J, Reijmer C, M. Lenaerts J, van de Berg W, van den Broeke M, van Meijgaard E, Walker D, Brandon M, Jenkins A, Allen J, Dowdeswell J, Evans J, Wingham D, Francis C, Baker S, Bouzinac C, Brockley D, Cullen R, de Chateau-Thierry P, Laxon S, Mallow U, Mavrocordatos C, Phalippou L, Ratier G, Rey L, Rostan F, Viau P, Wallis D, Jacobs S, Jenkins A, Giulivi C, Dutrieux P, Wouters B, Martin-Espanol A, Helm V, Flament T, van Wessem J, Ligtenberg S, van den Broeke M, Bamber J, Zwally H, Giovinetto M, Li J, Cornejo H, Beckley M, Brenner A, Saba J, Yi D, Bamber J, Riva R, Vermeersen B, LeBrocq A, et al Bindschadler R, Nowicki S, Abe-Ouchi A, Aschwanden A, Choi H, Fastook J, Granzow G, Greve R, Gutowski G, Herzfeld U, Jackson C, Johnson J, Khroulev C, Levermann A, Lipscomb W, Martin M, Morlighem M, Parizek B, Pollard D, Price S, Ren D, Saito F, Sato T, Seddik H, Seroussi H, Takahashi K, Walker R, Wang W, De Angelis H, Skvarca P, Dupont T, Alley R, Gagliardini O, Durand G, Zwinger T, Hindmarsh R, Le Meur E, Goldberg D, Holland D, Schoof C, Thomas R, de Young B, Ribergaard M, Lyberth B, Jacobs S, Jenkins A, Giulivi C, Dutrieux P, Joughin I, Alley R, Levermann A, Albrecht T, Winkelmann R, Martin M, Haseloff M, Joughin I, Schewe J, Griesel A, Hofmann M, Montoya M, Rahmstorf S, Schewe J, Montoya M, Petoukhov V, Held H, MacAyeal D, Mercer J, Morland L, Olbers D, Hellmer H, Pattyn F, Perichon L, Durand G, Favier L, Gagliardini O, Hindmarsh R, Zwinger T, Albrecht T, Cornford S, Docquier D, Fürst J, Goldberg D, Gudmundsson G, Humbert A, Hütten M, Huybrechts P, Jouvet G, Kleiner T, Larour E, Martin D, Morlighem M, Payne A, Pollard D, Rückamp M, Rybak O, Seroussi H, Thoma M, Wilkens N, Rignot E, Mouginot J, Scheuchl B, Jacobs S, Rott H, Rack W, Skvarca P, De Angelis H, Schoof C, Thomas E, Marshall G, McConnell J, Thomas R, Bentley C, Vaughan D, Doake C, Weertman J, Winkelmann R, Martin M, Haseloff M, Albrecht T, Bueler E, Khroulev C, Levermann A, Aagaard K, Carmack E, Adcroft A, Hill C, Marshall J, Adkins J, McIntyre K, Schrag D, Albrecht T, Levermann A, Martin M, Winkelmann R, Haseloff M, Levermann A, Allen M, Ingram W, Frame D, Huntingford C, Jones C, Lowe J, Meinshausen M, Meinshausen N, Alley R, Blankenship D, Bentley C, Rooney S, Clark P, Huybrechts P, Joughin I, Fahnestock M, Joughin I, Horgan H, Joughin I, Cuffey K, Dupont T, Parizek B, Anandakrishnan S, Bassis J, Spencer M, Anandakrishnan S, Dupont T, Parizek B, Pollard D, Whillans I, Allison I, Alley R, Fricker H, Thomas R, Warner R, Alverson K, Oldfield F, Amundson J, Truffer M, Anandakrishnan S, Blankenship D, Alley R, Stoffa P, Catania G, Alley R, Horgan H, Anderson D, Overpeck J, Gupta A, Anderson J, Shipp S, Lowe A, Smith Wellner J, Mosola A, Anderson R, Ali S, Bradtmiller L, Nielsen S, Fleisher M, Anderson B, Burckle L, ang M. Henrion M, Annamalai H, Hamilton K, Sperber K, Applegate P, Kirchner N, Stone E, Keller K, Greve R, Archer D, Brovkin V, Arnell N, Arrhenius S, Arthern R, Gudmundsson G, Aschwanden A, Bueler E, Ashkenazy Y, Tziperman E, Assmann K, Timmermann R, Auer I, Böhm R, Jurkovic A, Lipa W, Orlik A, Potzmann R, Schöner W, Ungersböck M, Matulla C, Briffa K, Jones P, Efthymiadis D, Brunetti M, Nanni T, Maugeri M, Mercalli L, Mestre O, Moisselin J, Begert M, Müller-Westermeier G, Kveton V, Bochnicek O, Stastny P, Lapin M, Szalai S, Szentimrey T, Cegnar T, Dolinar M, Gajic-Capka M, Zaninovic K, Majstorovic Z, Nieplova E, Auffhammer M, Ramanathan V, Vincent J, Bacon S, Gould W, Jia Y, Bahr D, Dyurgerov M, Meier M, Bailey D, Rhines P, Häkkinen S, Baines P, Condie S, Balay S, Buschelman K, Eijkhout V, Gropp W, Kaushik D, Knepley M, McInnes L, Smith B, Zhang H, Bamber J, Alley R, Joughin I, Vaughan D, Joughin I, Barnett T, Adam J, Lettenmaier D, Barrett P, Bassis J, Beal L, de Ruijter W, Biastoch A, Zahn R, Others, Beckmann A, Döscher R, Goosse H, Hellmer H, Timmermann R, Behrendt J, Finn C, Blankenship D, Bell R, Studinger M, Shuman C, Fahnestock M, Joughin I, Beniston M, Benn D, Hulton N, Mottram R, Bentley C, Bergamasco A, Defendi V, Zambianchi E, Spezie G, Berger A, Berner E, Berner R, Bersch M, Yashayaev I, Koltermann K, Betz G, Bi D, Budd W, Hirst A, Wu X, Biastoch A, Böning C, Lutjeharms J, et al Bindschadler R, Choi H, Wichlacz A, Bingham R, Bohlander J, Brunt K, Corr H, Drews R, Fricker H, Hall M, Hindmarsh R, Kohler J, Padman L, Rack W, Rotschky G, Urbini S, Vornberger P, Young N, Fleming A, Fox A, Mullins J, Binnie D, Paulsen S, Granneman B, Gorodetzky D, Bingham R, Hughes C, Siegert M, Blanchon P, Eisenhauer A, Fietzke J, Liebetrau V, Blankenship D, Bentley C, Rooney S, Alley R, Bell R, Hodge S, Brozena J, Behrendt J, Finn C, Blatter H, Blindheim J, Borovkov V, Hansen B, Malmberg S, Turrell W, O\/sterhus S, Blunier T, Chappellaz J, Schwander J, Dällenbach A, Stauffer B, Stocker T, Raynaud D, Jouzel J, Clausen H, Hammer C, Johnsen S, Boer G, Bombosch A, Jenkins A, Bond G, Heinrich H, Broecker W, Labeyrie L, McManus J, Andrews J, Huon S, Jantschik R, Clasen S, Simet C, Tedesco K, Klas M, Bonani G, Ivy S, Böning C, Dispert A, Visbeck M, Rintoul S, Schwarzkopf F, Scheinert M, Dengg J, Biastoch A, Funk A, Born A, Levermann A, Mignot J, Nisancioglu K, Risebrobakken B, Levermann A, Borowski D, Gerdes R, Olbers D, Bougamont M, Bamber J, Ridley J, Gladstone R, Greuell W, Hanna E, Payne A, Rutt I, Boyle E, Keigwin L, Bracegirdle T, Connolley W, Turner J, Bradley R, Braithwaite R, Raper S, Braun H, Christl M, Rahmstorf S, Ganopolski A, Mangini A, Kubatzki C, Roth K, Kromer B, Braun M, Humbert A, Moll A, Brix H, Gerdes R, Broecker W, Peacock S, Walker S, Weiss R, Fahrbach E, Schroeder M, Mikolajewicz U, Heinze C, Key R, Peng T, Rubin S, Trumbore S, Bonani G, Wolfli W, Sutherland S, Peng T, Brovkin V, Claussen M, Petoukhov V, Ganopolski A, Svirezhev Y, Brown C, Sikonia W, Post A, Rasmussen L, Meier M, Bryan F, Bryden H, Imawaki S, Longworth H, Cunningham S, Buck F, Olbers D, Hellmer H, Budd W, Warner R, Coutts B, Warner R, Bueler E, Brown J, Lingle C, Khroulev C, Aschwanden A, Joughin I, Smith B, Lingle C, Kallen-Brown J, Covey D, Bowman L, Brown J, Bürger G, Cubasch U, Burns S, Fleitmann D, Matter A, Kramers J, Al-Subbary A, C.Amstrup S, DeWeaver E, Douglas D, Marcot B, Durner G, Bitz C, Bailey D, Caillon N, Severinghaus J, Jouzel J, Barnola J, Kang J, Lipenkov V, Calov R, Greve R, Abe-Ouchi A, Bueler E, Huybrechts P, Johnson J, Pattyn F, Pollard D, Ritz C, Saito F, Tarasov L, CAPE-Last Interglaicial Project Members, Carter T, Jones R, Lu X, Bhadwal S, Conde C, Mearns L, O�Neill B, Rounsevell M, Zurek M, Cavalieri D, Parkinson C, Vinnikov K, Cazenave A, Dominh K, Guinehut S, Berthier E, Llovel W, Ramillien G, Ablain M, Larnicol G, Nerem R, Challenor P, Hankin R, Marsh R, McNeall D, Gattiker J, Chao B, Wu Y, Li Y, Charney F, Fjørtoft R, von Neumann J, Charney J, Shukla J, Chen J, Wilson C, Blankenship D, Tapley B, Cherchi A, Alessandri A, Masina S, Navarra A, Christoffersen P, Tulaczyk S, Behar A, Chugunov V, Wilchinsky A, Church J, Clark P, Cazenave A, Gregory J, Jevrejeva S, Levermann A, Merrifield M, Milne G, Nerem R, Nunn P, Payne A, Pfeffer W, Stammer D, Unnikrishnan A, Huybrechts P, Kuhn M, Lambeck K, Nhuan M, Qin D, Woodworth P, White N, Konikow L, Domingues C, Cogley J, Rignot E, Gregory J, van den Broeke M, Monaghan A, Velicogna I, Clark C, Cole J, Webster P, Clark J, Lingle C, Clark P, Alley R, Pollard D, Pisias N, Stocker T, Weaver A, Clarke A, Murphy E, Meredith M, King J, Peck L, Barnes D, Smith R, Clarke G, Lhomme N, Marshall S, Claussen M, Brovkin V, Ganopolski A, Kubatzki C, Petoukov V, Rahmstorf S, Brovkin V, Ganopolski A, Hoelzmann P, Pachur H, CLIMAP, Cogley G, Collins M, Booth B, Harris G, Murphy J, Sexton D, Webb M, Comiso J, Parkinson C, Gersten R, Stock L, Connolley W, Bracegirdle T, Conway H, Hall B, Denton G, Gades A, Waddington E, Cook A, Fox A, Vaughan D, Ferrigno J, Cook E, Anchukaitis K, Buckley B, D�Arrigo R, Jacoby G, Wright W, Corr H, Vaughan D, Jenkins A, Nicholls K, Doake C, Courant R, Friedrichs K, Lewy H, Crank J, Nicolson P, Creyts J, Derkach A, Nyquist S, Ostrowski K, Stephenson J, Creyts T, Clarke G, Schoof C, Crowley T, Berner R, North G, Zielinski G, Vinther B, Udisti R, Kreutz K, Cole-Dai J, Castellano J, Cubasch U, Voss R, Hegerl G, Waszkewitz J, Crowley T, Cuffey K, Paterson W, Marshall S, Cunningham S, Alderson S, King B, Brandon M, Curran M, Ommen T, Morgan V, Palmer K, Curry R, McCartney M, Joyce T, Dickson B, Yashayaev I, Mauritzen C, Curry W, Duplessy J, Labeyrie L, Shackelton N, D. I. Benn C. R. Warren R, Dameris M, Grewe V, Hein R, Schnadt C, Dansgaard W, Johnsen S, Clausen H, Dahl-Jensen D, Gundestrup N, Hammer C, Hvidberg C, Steffensen J, Sveinbjornsdottir A, Jouzel J, Bond G, Dash S, Singh G, Shekhar M, Vernekar A, Davis C, Li Y, McConnell J, Frey M, Hanna E, de Angelis M, Steffensen J, Legrand M, Clausen H, Hammer C, de Steur L, Hansen E, Gerdes R, Karcher M, Fahrbach E, Holfort J, DeBoer A, Nof D, Deconto R, Pollard D, Delworth T, Manabe S, Stouffer R, Mann M, Stouffer R, Dixon K, Spelman M, Knutson T, Broccoli A, Kushner P, Wetherald R, Deser C, Teng H, Dickinson R, Henderson-Sellers A, Kennedy P, Wilson M, Dickson B, Yashayaev I, Meincke J, Turrell B, Dye S, Holfort J, Dijkstra H, Raa L, Weijer W, Dinniman M, Klinck J, Smith W, Doake C, Corr H, Skvarca P, Young N, Vaughan D, Domack E, Duran D, Leventer A, Ishman S, Doane S, McCallum S, Amblas D, Ring J, Gilbert R, Prentice M, Leventer A, Sylva S, Willmott V, Huber B, Domingues C, Church J, White N, Gleckler P, Wijffels S, Barker P, Dunn J, Döös K, Webb D, Dorale J, Onac B, Fornós J, Ginés J, Ginés A, Tuccimei P, Peate D, Döscher R, Beckmann A, Drewry D, Jordan S, Jankowski E, Drijfhout S, Weber S, van der Swaluw E, Duplessy J, Shackleton N, Fairbanks R, Labeyrie L, Oppo D, Kallel N, Dupont T, Alley R, Durand G, Gagliardini O, De Fleurian B, Zwinger T, Le Meur E, Durand, Gagliardini O, Zwinger T, Le Meur E, Hindmarsh R, Dutay J, Colleagues, Eckhardt K, Ulbrich U, Eden C, Böning C, Willebrand J, Eisenmann I, Wettlaufer J, Eltahir E, Emanuel K, Emery W, Fowler C, Maslanik J, England M, EPICA-Project, Erdogan F., Sih G, Evans S, Toumi R, Harris J, Chipperfield M, Russell J, Fahnestock M, Abdalati W, Shuman C, Farinotti D, Huss M, Bauder A, Funk M, Fasullo J, Feldmann J, Albrecht T, Levermann A, Feller D, Soll J, Ferrigno J, Mullins J, Stapleton J, Chavez P, Velasco M, Williams R, Delinski G, Lear D, Fichefet T, Maqueda M, Poncin C, Goosse H, Huybrechts P, Janssens I, Treut H, Fioletov V, Evans W, Foldvik A, Gammelsrød T, Østerhus S, Fahrbach E, Rohardt G, Schröder M, Nicholls K, Padman L, Woodgate R, Folland C, Rayner N, Brown S, Smith T, Shen S, Parker D, Macadam I, Jones P, Jones R, Nicholls N, Sexton D, Forster P, Shine K, Foster G, Rahmstorf S, Fowler A, Johnson C, Frankignoul C, Deshayes J, Curry R, Fricker H, Scambos T, et al Bindschadler R, Padman L, Friedlingstein P, Cox P, Betts R, Bopp L, von Bloh W, Brovkin V, Cadule P, Doney S, Eby M, Fung I, Bala G, John J, Jones C, Joos F, Kato T, Kawamiya M, Knorr W, Lindsay K, Matthews H, Raddatz T, Rayner P, Reick C, Roeckner E, Schnitzler K, Schnur R, Strassmann K, Weaver K, Yoshikawa C, Zeng N, Frieler K, M. M, Braun N, Wigley T, Hare W, Meinshausen M, Mengel M, Braun N, Hare W, Furevik T, Bentsen M, Drange H, Kindem I, Sorteberg N, Fürst J, Levermann A, Fyfe J, Saenko O, Zickfeld K, Eby M, Weaver A, Gaddis E, Miles B, Morse S, Lewis D, Gagliardini O, Cohen D, Råback P, Zwinger T, Gammelsroed T, Ganachaud A, Wunsch C, Ganopolski A, Kubatzki C, Claussen M, Brovkin V, Petoukhov V, Rahmstorf S, Brovkin V, Claussen M, Eliseev A, Kubatzki C, Petoukhov V, Claussen M, Gargett A, Holloway G, Garthwaite P, Kadane J, O'Hagan A, Gehrels W, Hayward B, Newnham R, Southall K, Gelfand I, Kapranov M, Zelevinsky A, Gent P, Large W, Bryan F, McWilliams J, Willebrand J, McDougall T, McWilliams J, Gerdes R, Hurlin W, Griffies S, Gill A, Gille S, Gillett N, Arora V, Zickfeld K, Marshall S, Merryfield W, Giorgi F, Gladstone R, Lee V, Vieli A, Payne A, Cornford S, Glasser N, Kulessa B, Luckman A, Jansen D, King E, Sammonds P, Scambos T, Jezek K, Glen J, Gnanadesikan A, de Boer A, Mignone B, Hallberg R, Slater R, 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The Cryosphere, vol. 5, issue 4 (2014) pp. 1576-1584

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Abstract

As continental ice from Antarctica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed. The melting rate is positively correlated with thermal forcing, increasing by 1 meter per year for each 0.1 degrees C rise in ocean temperature. Where deep water has direct access to grounding lines, glaciers and ice shelves are vulnerable to ongoing increases in ocean temperature.

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  • Physical Properties of Rocks: Instruments and tech
  • Physical Properties of Rocks: Plasticity
  • RESOLUTION
  • ROSS ICE SHELF
  • Radio Science: Instruments and techniques
  • Radio Science: Interferometry
  • Radio Science: Remote sensing
  • Response functions
  • SALINITY
  • SATELLITE IMAGERY
  • SEA ICE
  • SEA LEVEL
  • SIRAL radar
  • SPOT (FRENCH SATELLITE)
  • Satellite Communications
  • Sea level change
  • Sea-level rise
  • Seismology: Earthquake dynamics (1242)
  • Seismology: General or miscellaneous
  • Southern Ocean
  • TEMPERATURE
  • TIDES
  • Theoretical
  • Thermal expansion
  • VARIABILITY
  • VOLCANOES
  • Volcanology
  • Volcanology: General or miscellaneous
  • West Antarctica
  • Z{_}ocean
  • altimetry
  • and creep
  • and geophysics
  • and mixing processes
  • antarctic_ice_sheet
  • antarctica
  • available from stacks
  • basal melt
  • chlimate impacts
  • climate
  • climate change
  • climate change change
  • climate_change
  • control method
  • coupled climate model
  • crevasses
  • cryos
  • cultural heritage
  • dangerous interference
  • decadal variability
  • diffusion
  • doi:10.
  • doi:10.102
  • erl
  • fishery
  • fracturing
  • fuzzy logic
  • geology
  • glacier dynamics
  • glacier_mass_balance
  • glaciers
  • global trade
  • grounding line
  • grounding_line
  • heat flow
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GL019920
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028154
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000664
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032529
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008JF001179
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010GL043334
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL046583
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB094iB04p04071
  • ice flux
  • ice fluxes
  • ice sheets
  • ice shelf
  • ice shelf modelling
  • ice shelves and icebergs
  • ice_elevation
  • ice_mass_balance
  • ice_mass_loss
  • ice_sheet
  • ice_sheet_dynamics
  • ice_sheet_model
  • ice_velocity
  • icebergs
  • insar
  • interferometry
  • inverse modelling
  • iop
  • landsat
  • law of the sea
  • machine learning
  • management
  • marine ecology
  • marine geochemistry
  • marine instability
  • marine pollution
  • marine ressources
  • marine technology
  • mass balance
  • mass_balance
  • medicine
  • meteorology
  • mmedia
  • monsoon
  • monsoon failure
  • ocean freshening and warming
  • ocean_ice_interaction
  • oceanography
  • org
  • polar climate
  • precipitation
  • remote_sensing
  • resileince
  • s online supplementary data
  • satellite measurements
  • sea ice area and extent
  • sea level change
  • sea level rise
  • sea-level rise
  • seasonal-to-decadal
  • seismic tomographic model
  • stochastic model
  • structural similarity
  • time-variable gravity
  • time_series
  • transient
  • trend
  • uncertainty
  • variability
  • warming
  • west_antarctica
  • {{}0{_}MODEL
  • {}} T{_}subshelf

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