Background & Aims: Ustekinumab, a human monoclonal antibody against the p40 subunit of interleukins-12 and -23, is effective in inducing and maintaining remission in patients with luminal Crohn's disease (CD). We assessed the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous ustekinumab in patients with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) refractory CD. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study, collecting data from the Groupe d'Etude Thérapeutique des Affections Inflammatoires du tube Digestif on 122 consecutive patients with active CD refractory to anti-TNF therapy who received at least 1 subcutaneous injection of ustekinumab from March 2011 to December 2014, in 20 tertiary centers in Europe. Subjects were followed for at least 3 months. The primary outcome was clinical benefit, defined as reductions in symptoms and biochemical markers of CD and complete weaning from steroids, without surgery or immunosuppressant therapies. Results: Seventy-nine patients (65%) had a clinical benefit within 3 months of receiving ustekinumab. Concomitant immunosuppressant therapy at study inclusion increased the odds for a clinical benefit from ustekinumab (odds ratio, 5.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-25.77; P = .03). Over a median follow-up period of 9.8 months (interquartile range, 5.3-14.5 months), the cumulative probabilities that patients maintained the clinical benefit for 6 and 12 months after introduction of ustekinumab were 93% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Almost two-thirds of patients with CD refractory to at least 1 anti-TNF agent receive clinical benefit from ustekinumab therapy, not requiring steroids for up to 12 months afterward. While awaiting results from ongoing trials, ustekinumab can be considered for use in these patients.
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