Transanal excision (TE), endoscopic transanal resection (ETAR) and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) can be used to remove adenomatous polyps. However, their use is limited by the size or location of the tumor. TE is limited to the lower rectum, TEM offers better access to lesions in the middle and upper rectum, and ETAR is used less frequently than it deserves for resection of rectal lesions.
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