After about a decade of intense research, spurred by both economic and operational considerations, and by environmental concerns, energy efficiency has now become a key pillar in the design of communication networks. With the advent of the fifth generation of wireless networks, with millions more base stations and billions of connected devices, the need for energy-efficient system design and operation will be even more compelling. This survey provides an overview of energy-efficient wireless communications, reviews seminal and recent contribution to the state-of-the-art, including the papers published in this special issue, and discusses the most relevant research challenges to be addressed in the future.
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