We present a method to test quantum behavior of quantum information processing devices, such as quantum memories, teleportation devices, channels, and quantum key distribution protocols. The test of quantum behavior can be phrased as the verification of effective entanglement. Necessary separability criteria are formulated in terms of a matrix of expectation values in conjunction with the partial transposition map. Our method is designed to reduce the resources for entanglement verification. A particular protocol based on coherent states and homodyne detection is used to illustrate the method. A possible test for the quantum nature of memories using two nonorthogonal signal states arises naturally. Furthermore, closer inspection of the measurement process in terms of the Stokes operators reveals a security threat for quantum key distribution involving phase reference beams.
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